Because the complete structure of the genome of many creatures including man is being explicated, bioscience is currently in a transformative period. It can be said that modern bioscience creates fine-grained understanding of the physical structure of “parts” and life functions borne by the “parts”. However, “the whole” cannot be rebuilt only through an accumulation of “parts.” In the process of gathering “parts,” their functions increase or new functions occur through interoperation of “parts,” and life functions performed by the group become more diverse. Today it has become clear that each cell, the basic unit of life, and each molecule composing a cell have their roles. Based on this, the bioscience of the new century to be built on intellectual property of the 20th century should be a new cellular bioscience as well as a new molecular bioscience. These biosciences will elucidate the original functions and shared functions of the single cell or molecule and at the same time elucidate complex functions or aggregate functions that appear in the aggregation thereof. Against the backdrop of the era, in the Course of Frontier Bioscience, we suggest a new bioscience, “frontier bioscience,” which is characterized by “cell individuality studies” and “molecular individuality studies.” While playing a leading role in creation of new studies, we furnish leading-edge bioscience education.