About

About the The Japan Statistics Research Institute at Hosei University

Objectives

The objectives of the Institute and the projects to be undertaken to realize those objectives are stated in the Japan Statistics Research Institute Regulations, included within the regulations of Hosei University.

(Objectives)

Article 2

The objectives of the Institute are to conduct comprehensive research concerning statistics.

(Projects)

Article 3

The Institute will carry out the following types of projects in order to accomplish the objectives stated in the preceding article.

  1. Projects related to theoretical and technical research concerning statistics.
  2. Projects related to presenting the results of research and surveys.
  3. Projects related to collecting, sorting, and maintaining research materials.
  4. Projects related to other types of work necessary for accomplishing the objectives of the Institute.

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Organization

The Japan Statistics Research Institute is administered under the following organizational structure.

The Chief Director and the Staff of the Institute (2013 Fiscal Year)

Chief Director

  • MORI Hiromi, Professor, Faculty of Economics, Hosei University

Institute Staff

  • OZAWA Kazuhiro, Professor, Faculty of Economics, Hosei University
  • KITAURA Yasutsugu, Associate Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences, Hosei University
  • SAKAMOTO Noriaki, Professor, Faculty of Economics, Hosei University
  • SUZUKI Takeshi, Professor, Faculty of Business Administration, Hosei University
  • SUGA Mikio, Professor, Faculty of Economics, Hosei University
  • NAGAYAMA Kei'ichi, Professor, Faculty of Social Policy and Administration, Hosei University

Emeritus Researchers

  • KITA Katsumi, Emeritus Professor, Hosei University
  • ITO Yoichi, Emeritus Professor, Hosei University

Visiting Researchers

  • ANDO Fukiko, Lecturer, Faculty of Economics, Hosei University
  • ONODERA Tsuyoshi, Assistant Professor, Center for Statistics and Information, Rikkyo University
  • KURIHARA Yukiko, Instructor, Faculty of Humanities, Hirosaki University
  • KONDO Masahiko, Kanto Ryojukosan CO.
  • SAKATA Yukishige, Professor, Faculty of Economics, Chuo University
  • SUGIHASHI Yayoi, Associate Professor, Faculty of Economics, Kanazawa University
  • TAKAHASHI Tomokazu, Professor, Faculty of Economics, Aoyama-Gakuin University
  • HASEGAWA Shinichi, Director, Center for GIS, Niigata City
  • FUKUSHIMA Toshio, Professor, School of Economics, Senshu University
  • MIZUNOYA Takeshi, Professor, Faculty of Economics, Hokkai-Gakuen University
  • MISONO Kenkichi, Professor, Faculty of Management Information, Hannan University
  • MIYAKAWA Kozo, Assistant Professor, Keio Economic Observatory
  • YAMAMOTO Kenji, Professor, Faculty of Economics, Kyushu University

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History

Chronology of Hosei University Japan Statistics Research Institute

Introduction

Chapter 1: From the Establishment of the Institute to Its Merger with Hosei University

1. The Establishment and the Early Activities of the Japan Statistics Research Institute – Late 1940s

  • The Establishment of the Institute
  • The Contributions Made to the Post-War Restructuring of the Government Statistical System

2. The Transfer to Hosei University: The Start, Stagnation, and Resumption of Research, and the Transformation into a University-Affiliated Research Institute – From the 1950s to the Early 1980s

  • Transfer to Hosei University
  • Vitalization of Research Activities
  • Stagnation of Research
  • Resumption of Research Activities and the Transformation into a University-Affiliated Research Institute

Chapter 2: As a Research Institute Affiliated to Hosei University

1. Transfer to the Tama Campus and the Steady Progress of Research Activities – The Late 1980s

  • A New Research Facility for the Institute
  • Research Activities Take Firm Root
  • Strengthening the Library Functions

2. Expansion of Research – Activities During the 1990s and Future Undertakings

  • Pursuing a Diverse Range of Research Topics
    • < Studies on Conditions of Statistical Survey Environments >
    • < Regional Statistics and Non-Governmental Statistics >
    • < Statistics on Population, the Labor Force, and Labor >
    • < Gender Statistics >
    • < Statistical Microdata >
    • < Statistical Systems of Asian Countries >
    • < The 2000~2001 World Census International Workshop >
  • Expansion of the Library Resources and the Library Service System

Chapter 3: Activities Since 2000

1. Research Topics and Outcomes

2. Education

3. The Library and the Administrative Structure


Chronology of Hosei University Japan Statistics Research Institute

1941Office of Research on National Resources established under the Ministry of Finance
1943The National Resources Research Institute established under the Bank of Japan
June, 1946Reorganized and established as an incorporated foundation, the Japan Statistics Research Institute (Chief Director -- ŌUCHI Hyōe)
March, 1953Transferred to Hosei University campus
October, 1974The Catalog of Books Held by Hosei University Japan Statistics Research Institute published
March, 1976The inaugural issue of The Research Institute Newsletter published
April, 1981Becomes an affiliated research institute of Hosei University
1985Transferred to Tama campus
November, 2006The Institute receives the 2006 ŌUCHI Award

Introduction

The Japan Statistics Research Institute was established in 1946 outside of the Hosei University's organizational structure. Nevertheless, personnel at Hosei University, particularly Mr. ŌUCHI Hyōe, who served for numerous years as the president of the university, were deeply involved with the establishment of the Institute and its activities in the ensuing years. The Institute was transferred to the '53 Building (formerly the Graduate School Building) on the Fujimi campus of Hosei University in 1953. Since then, the university and the Institute have been connected not only in their activities but also in terms of facilities. The Institute experienced a period of stagnation during the 1960s under the influence of the students' movement. Nonetheless, from the 1970s on, the Institute gradually expanded its activities in collaboration with Hosei University. In 1972, the Institute began receiving financial support from the university and became a research Institute officially affiliated to the university. In 1985, the Institute was transferred to the Tama campus along with the Faculty of Economics and the Faculty of Social Sciences. At that point, the Institute's facilities became more spacious, and the Institute has since conducted a diverse range of activities. While the Institute has maintained its attention to the issues that defined its early years, it has also developed its activities in response to the changes and needs of the times. The following section will briefly discuss the establishment of the Institute as an incorporated foundation and the Institute's activities in the ensuing years. It will then discuss in more detail the Institute's activities after its official affiliation to Hosei university.

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Chapter 1: From the Establishment of the Institute to Its Merger with Hosei University

1. The Establishment and the Early Activities of the Japan Statistics Research Institute – Late 1940s

The Establishment of the Research Institute

The National Resources Research Institute (kokka shiryoku kenkyūjo) was established under the Bank of Japan in 1943 during World War II. This research institute inherited the research conducted in the Office of Research on National Resources (kokka shiryoku kenkyūshitsu) founded under Ministry of Finance in 1941, and aimed to examine issues such as national resources, key economic indicators, income distribution, and prices. The Institute's practical achievements were linked to theories of macroeconomics, as seen for example in its introduction and considerations of Keynesian theories, and were published under titles such as "Research Number X" and "Document Number Y." SHIBUSAWA Keizō, the governor of the Bank of Japan at the time, considered the establishment of a research organization specialized in statistics a necessity, given the devastating state of statistics in Japan after the defeat in World War II. In collaboration with those who supported his ideas, such as ŌUCHI Hyōe, SHIBUSAWA Keizō detached the National Resources Research Institute from the Bank of Japan and reorganized it into an incorporated foundation: the Japan Statistics Research Institute.

The approval for the reorganization and establishment of the Japan Statistics Research Institute was given on June 27, 1946. The prospectus for the establishment of the Institute (The Purpose of Establishing the Japan Statistics Research Institute [Zaidan hōjin nihon tōkei kenkyūjo sesturitsu no shui], Japan Statistics Research Institute, 1946) discussed in the inaugural general meeting (on April 12, 1946) noted the need for a comprehensive reexamination of statistical surveys by the government and the private sector, the planning and conducting of new surveys, the improvement of the working conditions and level of statistical knowledge among enumerators in the private sector and in the government in both central and local areas, as well as an increase in interest and knowledge in statistics among the general public. The founders of the Institute noted in the prospectus their wish to make whatever contributions possible to the pursuit of these matters, which required close cooperation with various fields. The prospectus also notes that "the Research Institute will conduct research on statistical theories and techniques, compare and examine statistics of Japan and other countries, and hopes to further the development and improvement of the condition of statistics in Japan in collaboration with various government and private institutions in Japan." The inaugural board of directors of the Institute chosen during the general meeting was as follows – Chief Director: ŌUCHI Hyōe; Senior Managing Director: TAKAHASHI Masao; Managing Directors: ŌSAWA Michizō, NISHIZAWA Motoichi; Directors: ARISAWA Hiromi, NAKAYAMA Ichirō, MORITA Yūzō, KONDŌ Yasuo; Auditors: MINOBE Ryōkichi, WAKIMURA Yoshitarō; Researchers: YOSHIDA Yoshizō, SOEJIMA Tanenori, KOBAYASHI Hisayoshi, ŌSHIMA Kiyoshi, NISHIDA Isao, YAMAMOTO Masaharu, OKADA Minoru, MATSUKAWA Shichiro, FUJITA Takeo, and others.

The Contributions Made to the Post-War Restructuring of the Government Statistical System

The Institute began its undertaking by addressing the question of how to reconstruct statistical systems in Japan. However, due to the reduction of financing from the Bank of Japan following the resignation of SHIBUSAWA Keizō from the bank, the project was handed over first to the "Statistics Gathering (Tōkei kondankai)" (founded in late May, 1946), a study group operated jointly by the government and the private sector and sponsored by the Cabinet Councilors' Office. It was then succeeded by "the Committee for the Improvement of Statistical Systems (Tōkei seido kaizen ni kansuru iinkai)," which was established within the Cabinet following a decision made during the Cabinet meeting on July 19, 1946. Based on the report by this committee, the "Statistics Committee" as an administrative committee was founded on December 28. Thereafter, with the Statistics Committee as the coordinating organization, the statistical activities of the Japanese government made significant progress in the reconstruction process. In practice, the Committee for the Improvement of Statistical Systems that considered matters leading to the foundation of the Statistics Committee was staffed by the members of the Statistics Research Institute. A meeting record of the Statistics Research Institute* also notes that the selection of members as well as the administration of the Statistics Committee was entrusted to the Statistics Research Institute.
* "Minutes of the Japan Statistics Research Institute Board of Directors Meeting (Zaidan hōjin nihon tōkei kenkyūjo rijikai gijiroku)" Number 19, November 5, 1946.

A major undertaking concerning government statistics conducted by the Statistics Committee as an administrative committee since its establishment was the development of statistics organizations and the enactment of statistics laws and related regulations (approved by the Imperial Diet on March 17, 1947, promulgated on March 26, and enforced on May 1). The Statistics Research Institute made significant contributions to the consideration of these matters as well.* After the period immediately following the establishment of the Statistics Committee, the Statistics Research Institute continued its work with a primary focus on statistical analyses and statistical systems concerning economic problems, and research on statistical administration and the historical development of statistics. * "The Post-War Reconstruction Process of Statistical Systems (Sengo tōkei seido saiken katei)," "Documents (shiryō hen)," 3 volumes, "Descriptions (kijutsu hen)" 1 volume, Japan Statistics Research Institute.

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2. The Transfer to Hosei University: The Start, Stagnation, and Resumption of Research, and the Transformation into a University-Affiliated Research Institute – From the 1950s to the Eraly 1980s

Transfer to Hosei University

On the government level, the Statistics Committee was disbanded on July 3, 1947, and a part of the function of the Committee was entrusted to the Statistical Standard Department of the Administrative Management Agency. During that time, the Statistics Research Institute reelected its board members in December 1949, the full-time researcher system was established, and the Institute's research directions diversified. Researchers at the Institute in the following twenty years included HYŌDŌ Jirō, NAKAMURA Takafusa, ISHIKAWA Kunio, IZUMI Toshie, MIYAZAKI Sanshirō, KATŌ Nobuko, MORITA Minoru, ISHIGAKI Kesakichi, MIYAMOTO Kunio, and AIHARA Chigusa. The minutes from the Statistics Research Institute Board of Directors Meeting on March 27, 1953 notes that "the matters stated in Article 4 of the Statistics Research Institute's regulations concerning donations will be conducted also for Hosei University, and the board deems appropriate that the Institute builds a close relationship with Hosei University in the future." Moreover, it states that "the board wishes to transfer the research office of the Institute to Hosei University. At the same time, in order to put the aforementioned decisions into effect in a satisfactory manner, the board requests that two additional Hosei University personnel become members of the board." Documents between the Institute and Hosei University were prepared by ŌUCHI Hyōe, who was both the Chief Director of the Institute and the President of the university at the time.* Following this process, TOMOOKA Hisao, the chair of the Faculty of Economics at Hosei University, and NISHIKORI Ri'ichiro, a professor in the Faculty of Economics, became members of the board. The Institute was transferred to the '53 Building (formerly the Graduate School Building), and the board of directors meeting took place on the campus of Hosei University from then on.
* "Minutes of the Japan Statistics Research Institute Board of Directors Meeting (Zaidan hōjin nihon tōkei kenkyūjo rijikai gijiroku)" 1953.

Vitalization of Research Activities

From the 1950s through the mid-1960s, the Institute maintained a high level of research and publishing activities. The Institute published booklets on diverse topics, including: the Japanese Economy Analysis Series, published from May 1955 through January 1957 (of the 12 volumes planned for publication, 7 volumes were published from Chuōkeizaisha, on the topics of national income, national funds, wages, circulation of national savings, farmhouse economy, monopoly, population and employment); Collection of Economic Statistics in Japan – Meiji, Taishō, Shōwa (Nihon keizai tōkeishū – Meiji, Taishō, Shōwa), Nihon-hyōronsha, 1958, directed by ŌUCHI Hyōe and edited by AIHARA Shigeru et.al., published as a part of the tenth anniversary of the Institute; History of the Development of Statistics in Japan (Nihon tōkei hattatsushi, Tokyo daigaku shuppankai, 1960), a compilation of the results of the research project entitled "The System of Statistical Surveys in Japan (Waga kuni no tōkei chōsa no taikei)" conducted from 1955; History of the Reconstruction of Statistical Systems in Japan – Manuscripts on the History of the Statistics Committee (Nihon tōkei saikenshi – Tōkei iinkai shikō), published between March 1962 and March 1964 in five typescript volumes, including one descriptive volume, three volumes of documents and tables, and one volume of chronological tables and appendices).

Stagnation of Research

From the latter half of the 1960s through around 1970, the activities at the Institute were reduced for reasons including decreases in funding, the transfer of researchers, and strife at the university. The publication of Statistics on the Japanese Economy – The History of Statistics in Japan From the Perspective of Economic Development (Tōkei nihon keizai – keizai hatten wo tōshite mita nihon tōkeishi, AIHARA Shigeru and SAMEJIMA Tatsuyuki eds., 1971, Chikuma shobō), written by former and existing researchers at the Institute, is a significant piece of work produced during this period. However, at the Institute itself, the only task carried out at the time was the maintenance of documents in the Institute's possession under the supervision of KORENAGA Sumihiro and KITA Katsumi, who served as full-time faculty at the Faculty of Economics at Hosei University. Moreover, "because some members of the student council blocked entry to the campus with barricades, it became impossible to enter the Institute, and parts of the documents there were in terrible condition, scattered about and exposed to the weather."*
* KITA Katsumi "The Japan Statistics Research Institute (Nihon tōkei kenkyūjo)" in "A Hundred-Year History of Hosei University (Hosei daigaku hyakunen-shi)," 1980, p.806.

Resumption of Research Activities and the Transformation Into a University-Affiliated Research Institute

The following decision was made during the board of directors meeting on March 9, 1972, when the resumption of research activities at the '53 Building became possible. "1) As of April 1, 1973 (Shōwa 47), the name of the Institute will be "Hosei University Japan Statistics Research Institute," 2) In operating the Institute, the Institute will accommodate the needs of Hosei University faculty and graduate and undergraduate students to use the books and documents held at the Institute, and will consider the educational and research purposes of the university. On the other hand, the Institute expects support from the university for funding and facilities such as offices and libraries required for the operation of the Institute, 3) Should the Institute be dissolved in the future, the property of the Institute, including books and documents, will be donated to Hosei University."*
The new name of the Institute decided during the meeting, "Hosei University Japan Statistics Research Institute," was not approved, but MASUJIMA Kō, the student affairs trustee of Hosei University, joined the Institute's board of directors as a managing director, and KITA Katsumi, a statistics professor at Hosei University, joined as the senior managing director. The continuing members of the board of directors at the time were: ŌUCHI Hyōe, ARISAWA Hiromi, MINOBE Ryōkichi, MORITA Yuzō, NISHIKORI Ri¬-ichiro, SAMEJIMA Tatsuyuki¸ AIHARA Shigeru, and OHSHIMA daigo. Also in April 1972, KITA Katsumi, ITŌ Yōichi, and ISHIKAWA Kiyosi became researchers serving both the Institute and the university. KOMIYA Eiko and HIROTA Masato also joined as clerical staff.
* "Minutes of the Japan Statistics Research Institute Board of Directors 1st Meeting (Zaidan hōjin nihon tōkei kenkyūjo daiikkai rijikai )," March 9, 1972

The first task undertaken after this change took place was the editing of the catalog of the books held at the Institute, leading to the publication of Hosei University Japan Statistics Research Institute Library Catalog (as of March 31, 1974)(Hosei daigaku nihon tōkei kenkyūjo shozōsho mokuroku [Shōwa yonjūkyū nen sangatsu matsu genzai]) in October 1974. Then, the publication of "Issues Concerning Statistical Systems (Tōkei o meguru mondai)," Research Institute Newsletter (Kenkyūshohō, No.1, May 1976), and Reference for Statistical Research (Tōkei kenkyū sankō shiryō, No.1, May 1976) began. (Hereafter, they will be referred to as the "Newsletter" and the "Reference.") In 1977, MORI Hiromi joined the Institute as a researcher, while concurrently serving as a faculty member in Hosei University's Faculty of Economics. From then on, the Newsletter featured issues including: No.2: Consumer Price Index, No.3: Statistical Education, No.4-5: Survey on Statistical Environment, No.6: Survey on Domestic Finance, No.7: Industrial Analysis, No.8: International Seminar – Economy and Society in Hungary. During this period, the Institute was transferred from the '53 Building to the second floor of Building No.1, and the books and documents of the Institute were moved to three research rooms, a meeting room, and the stacks of the former Building No.1 Library. The activities at the Institute slowly got underway as its facility expanded. Moreover, the Institute became a research Institute officially affiliated to the university in the 1981 fiscal year. As the Institute became a university-wide organization, the Institute became staffed by faculty members from several faculties of the university.

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Chapter 2: As a Research Institute Affiliated to Hosei University

1. Transfer to the Tama Campus and the Steady Progress of Research Activities – The Late 1980s

A New Research Facility for the Institute

When the Faculties of Economics and Social Sciences of Hosei University were transferred to the Tama campus in 1985, the Statistics Research Institute was also relocated. On the Tama campus, the Institute was placed on the fifth floor of the Library and Research Building along with the Ohara Institute of Social Research and the newly established Institute of Comparative Economic Studies. In the new building, the Institute installed library stacks and a reading area, as well as an office with two temporary staff working on a rotating shift, with one of the staff working in the office every day. As such, the new facility and administrative system of the Institute at the Tama campus was far superior to that of the Ichigaya campus period. The staff members of the Institute consisted of researchers working both at the Institute and the university, mainly in the Faculty of Economics but also in the Faculties of Social Sciences, Business Administration, Letters, and Liberal Arts. The books that were transferred from the Ichigaya campus were put in the stacks on the fifth floor and in the Institute's library, located on the third basement floor. Matters concerning the administration of the Institute, including issues of budget, personnel organization and activities, were discussed during the biannual staff meetings. Research activities and clerical work were carried out based on the discussions during these meetings.

Research Activities Take Firm Root

In terms of research, the Institute not only continued what had been done previously but also expanded its research areas, placing emphasis on research concerning statistical systems and administration, research on regional statistics, and social surveys. Occasionally, projects were launched and study groups were held, with collaboration of the staff members, statistics related government officials, and others concerned with statistics. The results of the Institute's research activities were published in the Newsletter (published annually in principle), the Reference (published three to six times a year), as well as in Working Papers, and widely distributed to statistical organizations, research organizations, domestic organizations such as universities, as well as to statisticians and researchers on statistics.

Early research activities during this period focused on the problems and outlining of Japan's major statistics by field. Officials from relevant government agencies involved with statistical matters were invited to attend hearings and discussions, and the reports on these events were published in the Newsletter. The issues discussed include population and labor, agriculture, finance, as well as consumption and family finances. The Newsletter also examined issues of foreign workers, as well as issues of regulations and statistical systems as main topics. The Reference featured issues concerning inter-industry relation tables, the Hungarian economy, statistics in the Soviet Union, statistics in China, regional statistics, American agricultural labor, and other relevant statistics. In 1988, a three-year project entitled "Labor Statistics – International Comparison – Research (Rōdō tōkei – kokusai hikaku – kenkyū)" was launched. Working papers were produced, and the original script and translation of the decisions made at the ILO Conference of Labor Statistics as well as lists of the titles of statistical charts in documents produced by relevant government agencies were compiled. The results of this project were later published in International Labor Statistics: A Handbook, Guide, and Recent Trends (Kokusai rōdō tōkei – tebiki to saikin no keikō) (ITŌ Yōichi, SUGIMORI Kōichi et. al. trans., 1990, Azusa shuppansha) and International Comparison of Labor Statistics (Rōdō tōkei no kokusai hikaku) (ITŌ Yōichi, IWAI Hiroshi, FUKUSHIMA Toshio eds., 1993, Azusa shuppansha). In terms of education, graduate students studying statistical issues made use of the books at the Institute and attended its study groups, and their research-related work, particularly translations, contributed to the above-mentioned publications. Undergraduate students also began using materials at the Institute for their statistics classes and seminars, or for graduation theses.

Strengthening the Library Functions

Due to the above-mentioned developments, the Institute worked further on sorting and expanding its library resources, so as to strengthen the library function by making the most the Institute's strengths.
First of all, the Institute plays a unique role in holding statistical books and documents from the Meiji, Taishō, and Shōwa periods, and World War II. In addition, the Institute also holds booklets from the National Resources Research Institute as well as the Japan Statistics Research Institute, the TAKANO Iwasaburō Collection transferred to the Ohara Institute for Social Research, and materials from the post-war period, creating a large collection of materials on the history of statistics and the statistical history of Japan. The Institute's library resources were further strengthened by donations from Mr. UESUGI Ichirō and Mr. NISHIHIRA Shigeki. Secondly, the Institute is unique in the university system for holding a collection of statistics concerning nations with planned economies such as the Soviet Union and those in Eastern Europe. At the time of the transfer to the Tama campus, Hosei University's library was divided into two parts. As for the materials concerning statistics, the Tama Library focused on materials on international statistics, and the Ichigaya Library on domestic statistics materials. Thus, the third characteristic of the Institute's library is that it has collected materials on major domestic statistics in order to counterbalance the materials available at the Tama Library. Fourth, in relation to the on-going regional statistics research, the Institute aimed to become a regional statistics center that collects the statistics of local governments with a primary focus on Tokyo and the Greater Tokyo Area. Domestic and international reference materials concerning statistics were also gathered. Original statistical materials and relevant books and documents can be easily accessed for viewing at the Institute. Combined with the collection held on the fourth floor of the Tama Library, the majority of domestic and international statistical materials can be accessed on the Tama campus, making the Institute an exceptional primary institution for statistical research.

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2. Expansion of Research – Activities During the 1990s and Future Undertakings

Pursuing a Diverse Range of Research Topics

While the operating structure of the Institute has remained the same, its research activities have become more dynamic and diverse, with a particular focus on critical issues concerning current and future domestic and international government statistical activities. Topics that have been pursued thus far include statistical environment, regional and non-governmental statistics, as well as population, foreign labor, and labor statistics. Projects that have been carried out include those on gender statistics, statistical microdata, statistical systems in Asian countries, and the 2000-2001 World Population Census.

< Studies on Conditions of Statistical Survey Environments >

The Japan Statistics Research Institute joined a study led by Kyushu University that began in 1978, and carried out surveys on enumerators and respondents in order to identify the problems in conducting statistical surveys. The study was featured in the Newsletter in 1979 and 1980. In addition, the results of the survey on respondents conducted in 1994 were published in the Newsletter in 1995, and the results of the survey on enumerators conducted in 1995 were published in the Newsletter in 1998.

< Regional Statistics and Non-Governmental Statistics >

Despite their importance, regional statistics in Japan have not received much attention from governmental statistical agencies, and the overall condition of the publication of regional statistics and their problems remain unclear. Therefore, the Institute has paid special attention to this issue in order to close the gap in knowledge and to raise interest in regional statistics. Newsletter No. 17 discussed regional statistics, and Reference No.30 was an edited volume entitled the "Compendium of Regional Statistics (Chihō tōkei sōran)." Statistics issued by non-governmental institutions conducting their own surveys have been gaining importance in their own rights, as more than merely materials that fill in the informational gaps in governmental statistics. The Newsletter No.23 discussed non-governmental statistics, and Reference No.55 was published as a "Non-Governmental Statistics Guide."

< Statistics on Population, the Labor Force, and Labor >

Newsletter No.10 discussed the issues of population and labor statistics. In addition, Reference Nos. 53, 59, and 64 featured research on the vital statistics issued by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and Newsletter No. 20 published the results of surveys on foreign workers. The Institute also published a translation of Working Hours: Assessing the Potential for Reduction (Rōdō jikan tanshuku no kanōsei o hyōka suru, 1996, Azusa shuppansha; originally published by ILO in 1987), and Reference Nos. 52 and 62 included charts of the international comparisons of labor statistics published by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.

< Gender Statistics >

The term "gender statistics" refers to the theories and movements that aim to transform the production and analysis of statistics as part of the international movement for gender equality, which was energized by the first United Nations World Conference on Women in 1975, an important turning point. The Japan Statistics Research Institute carried out a project entitled "Statistics on Women and Men (Josei to dansei no tōkei)" from 1992 to 1993, and published the first comprehensive monograph concerning gender statistics in Japan, entitled Statistics and Women: Introduction to Gender Statistics (Josei to tōkei – jendaa tōkei josetsu, 1994, Azusa shuppansha). Reference Nos. 34, 39, 42, and 51 introduced important literature on international trends on gender issues. Moreover, the Institute published a translation of an ILO publication, Comparable Worth and Gender Discrimination, written by Morley Gunderson (konparaburu waasu to jendaa sabetsu – kokusaiteki shikaku kara, trans. Japan Statistics Research Institute, 1995, Sangyō tōkei kenkyūsha), as well as a translation of a publication by Statistics Sweden, Engendering Statistics, written by Hedman Birgitta, Perucci Francesca and Sundstrom Pehr (josei to dansei no tōkeiron – henkaku no dōgu toshite no jendaa tōkei, trans. ITŌ Yōichi et. al., 1998, Azusa shuppansha). Concurrently, the Institute made a special effort to gather books and magazines published by the United Nations agency INSTRAW (International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women) and other materials concerning gender statistics, creating a unique collection of literature on gender statistics.

< Statistical Microdata >

From 1996 to 1998, the Institute collaborated with the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture in terms of personnel and materials for conducting research on "Statistical Microdata," which was designated as one of the "important scientific research areas" by the ministry at the time. Portions of the results of the research were published by the Institute. Statistical microdata are anonymous individual data sets for which measures have been taken to protect confidentiality, for example by removing information that can identify an individual, such as item names and addresses, from individual data collected during statistical surveys. This type of data allows far more detailed and objective analyses than standard statistical charts that are published after aggregate calculations. Although this type of data has been used internationally, systems that would allow the utilization of such data have not been established for Japan's governmental statistics. The Institute published a Reference concerning this project, and published its outcomes in Newsletter No. 25, which is a comprehensive report on statistical microdata, particularly in relation to social systems, including an examination of past developments on the subject in the United States and Europe. Relevant surveys and documents were published as Document Nos.1 through 7, and Document Nos. B1 through 4 were published as a compilation of lists of indexes of relevant major international journals, including proceedings of sectional meetings of the ASA (American Statistical Association) and proceedings of United States Census Bureau conferences. The Institute also has a cooperative relationship with CCSR (Center for Census and Survey Research) at the University of Manchester, a provider of population census microdata in England.

< Statistical Systems of Asian Countries >

In Japan, there is a latent interest in statistics from other Asian countries, due to their close and varied social and economic relationships with Japan. Research on the statistical systems and government policies of countries in Asia is thus indispensable. Since 1995, the Institute has paid special attention to the ESCAP Statistics Commission, which has been conducting a comprehensive examination of the condition of statistics in Asian countries. The Institute has compiled the reports and the original papers of the Japanese participants in the Commission's meetings, as well as articles concerning statistical systems and policies of Asian countries that have been published in Japan. These materials should serve as prerequisite basic materials for research on statistics in Asia in the future, and the Institute plans to continue this compilation process. The Institute also solicited articles from China concerning Chinese statistical systems and published them in Reference No. 41. The Reference series has also published materials on the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, Input Output tables, the United States Census Bureau's ISPP questionnaires, statistical quality, and register-based statistics production in Finland.

< The 2000~2001 World Census International Workshop >

The first international conference hosted by the Institute, entitled "The 2000-2001 World Population Census International Workshop," took place on October 31, 1999 at the Centennial Hall on the Tama campus. Mr. E. C. Hoy and MR. R. P. Singh from the United States Census Bureau, Mr. D. Bierau from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, and Prof. A. Dale from CCSR at the University of Manchester were invited to the conference, and Prof. HAMASUNA Keirō (Kyushu University), Prof. ISHIDA Akira (Keiai University), and Prof. MORI Hiromi (Hosei University) served as discussants. IT technology is increasingly used for statistical purposes, and while detailed data is in demand, there is also a need for the reduction of cost, manpower, and the burden on the respondents, as well as protection of privacy. The conference aimed to make an international contribution by organizing international discussions on conditions, problems and solutions for conducting censuses under this type of environment in leading industrialized nations. With population census experts as guests from abroad and leading specialists as participants, the conference was conducted successfully, with active discussions. The department of academic affairs on the Tama campus also contributed significantly to the success of the conference. The papers presented at the conference were published in Newsletter No. 26, which was widely distributed within and outside the university.

Expansion of the Library Resources and the Library Service System

In addition to the effort to expand the unique collection of books at the Institute, mentioned earlier, the Institute has also added new collections on gender statistics and literature concerning statistical microdata. In order to aid studies on statistics among students, the Institute has also been strengthening its collection of statistical textbooks and whitepapers, as well as general books and statistical materials on birthrate decline and population aging, care and welfare, and environmental issues. It has also been expanding the subscription to journals on statistical issues published abroad, including those published by the American Statistical Association and the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as well as Statistical News published in the United Kingdom. The Institute also continues to update its database in order to make the most of these library resources and strengthen its library services. Graduate students at the university use the library at the Institute constantly, and undergraduate use has also been increasing due partly to the library tour included in the statistics course at the Faculty of Economics. It is essential that the Institute pursue farsighted statistical research and projects with national and international perspectives that will bridge Japan and international agencies as well as other countries, particularly in Asia, and mediate between the government and the private sector. It is also hoped that the Institute can provide domestic and international information to teachers and officials as well as residents in nearby communities, while furthering its contribution to educational activities. For these purposes, it is indispensable that the Institute cooperates and shares work with the library and other organizations to strengthen its library services, including the expansion of its collection on statistics. Moreover, it is particularly important to utilize informational technology to share the Institute's research results with a domestic and international audience, to provide and exchange information, and to provide services to the community within and beyond the campus grounds. Such an effort includes strengthening the Institute's homepage and building and maintaining various databases containing research results and educational resources.

Staff members of the Institute since it became officially affiliated to the university are listed below. Those who served as the Chief Director are: KITA Katsumi, KAMOZAWA Iwao, ITŌ Yōichi, TOYODA Takashi, and MORI Hiromi. Those who served as staff members are: KITA Katsumi, ITŌ Yōichi, MORI Hiromi, YAMAMOTO Kenji, MIYAWAKI Norihiko, KOBAYASHI Ichirō, MIYAZAKI Kenji (Faculty of Economics), HAYASHI Naotsugu, TOYODA Takashi, SATŌ Hiroki, SUZUKI Takeshi (Faculty of Business Administration), YAMAGUCHI Fujio, KAMOZAWA Iwao, SASAGAWA Kōichi (Faculty of Letters), MORITA Tsuneo, TAKAHASHI Kōji, ISHIKAWA Kiyoshi, YAMADA Kazunari (Faculty of Social Sciences), NISHIKAWA Daijirō (Faculty of Liberal Arts). Those who served as clerical staff are: KOMIYA Eiko, HIROTA Masato, SHIMIZU Haruko, KITANI Shūko, SATŌ Itsuko, WATANABE Kazuko.

[The above list is a reproduction of the information up to 1999 included in The Post-War Fifty Years at Hosei University (Hosei daigaku sengo gojyū nen).]

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Chapter 3: Activities Since 2000

The Institute's activities from the year 2000 are described below.

1. Research Topics and Outcomes

Since the year 2000, the Institute has been pursuing topics that are significant internationally and are important for the field of statistics, and particularly for contemporary government statistics in Japan. These topics have been approached through international exchange, study groups, and projects under the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research. First, translations, descriptions, and reviews of major articles concerning "human rights, development, and statistics" that the international statistics field focused on before and into the twenty-first century, as well as on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that the United Nations and other organizations upheld as the issues for mankind in the early twenty-first century, were presented in Newsletter No. 27 (2001) and No. 30 (2003) respectively. These publications considered statistical research's examination of and contributions to global issues that have succeeded the debates in the United Nations World Conferences of the 1990s, have gone through in-depth examinations, and have emerged as the issues of primary importance both domestically and internationally.

Secondly, the Institute has been examining important topics that have been pursued in statistical activities and research in leading industrialized countries since the end of the twentieth century, but have not been fully examined in Japan, namely: (1) innovation in population censuses and the application of the register system [Newsletter No. 26 (2001), No. 33 (2005), No. 36 (2007), Reference No. 63 (2000), No. 81 (2003), No. 86 (2004)]; (2) statistical microdata [Newsletter No. 26 (2000), No. 32 (2004), No. 33 (2005), No. 34 (2005), No. 83 (2003)]; and (3) quality of statistics [Reference No. 79 (2002), No.89 (2005), No. 93 (2006), No. 97 (2007), Newsletter No. 37 (2007)]. The continued efforts made in these areas have included some international workshops.

Third, the Institute held an international conference on economic statistics in Japan and China at the Centennial Hall on the Tama campus. The conference became an important occasion for statistical research on China, as well as for interaction between statisticians and statistics researchers in China and Japan. (The conference was featured in Newsletter No. 28 [2000].) Research on statistics in China and Korea, as well as statistical comparison among Japan, China, and Korea continues to attract scholarly interest. (Reference No. 77 [2000]; No. 85 [2004], No. 90 [2005], No. 94 [2006], No. 96 [2007])

Fourth, research on statistics concerning gender equality (gender statistics) has continued to be one of the main focuses of the Institute since 1990. A project under a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (fiscal year 2001-2002) was carried out with the Institute as its research base. (The Report on the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research Project 2001-2002, The New Development of Gender Statistics and Establishment of a Related Database [jendaa tōkei kenkyū no shintenkai to kanren deetabeesu no kōchiku]; Reference No. 71 [2001], No. 75 [2001], No. 87 [2004].) Many of those who participated in the project made other relevant contributions, such as participating in and writing reports for the Specialist Committee on "Information for Gender Equality" for the Cabinet Office's Council for Gender Equality, the publication of the Databook of Statistics Related to Gender Equality (Danjo kyōdō sankaku tōkei deetabukku) issued in 2003 and 2006, as well as preparation of "Plans for Improving the Statistical Database on Family and Women (kazoku to josei tōkei deetabeesu kaizen'an)" for National Women's Education Center of Japan. The Institute also received another Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in the 2005-6 fiscal year for (i) research on the gender statistics of local governments, (ii) research on gender statistics in the ESCAP region, and (iii) international information outreach from Japan, and has expanded its research in this area. The research results were published in the Report on the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research Project 2005-2006, Toward Further Development of Gender Statistics: Development of the Theory, Regional Gender Statistics in Japan, and Asian and International Gender Statistics (jendaa tōkei kenkyū no issō no tenkai – Chihō jichitai e, ajia, sekai e, March, 2007).

Institute staff members participated in the First National Seminar on Gender Statistics in China (sponsored by the National Bureau of Statistics of China and The National Institute for Women, with support provided by UNFPA) as instructors and in other capacities, and assisted in the production of the Chinese version of the aforementioned Databook of Statistics Related to Gender Equality 2006, which was published in August 2007. Newsletter No. 35 (2007) was the first Newsletter of the Institute that featured "Gender Statistics." The Institute also published on gender budget (Reference No. 92 [2006]), as well as on the household production account concerning unpaid labor (No. 91 [2005], No. 98 [2008]).

The fifth research topic is establishing and examining statistics concerning economic trends, featured in a series of publications.

The Institute has also pursued a diverse range of other research topics including: issues of respondents' burden in statistical surveys (Reference No. 68 [2000]), statistical systems in India (Reference No. 80 [2003]), international comparison of unemployment statistics based on surveys among job seekers at job placement offices (Newsletter No. 29 [2002]), surveys on the unemployed (Reference No. 78 [2002]), theories on government statistical systems – Japan, the United States, and The United Kingdom (Reference No. 65-66 [2000]), the Russian shadow economy (Reference No. 72 [2001]), and the revision of statistics laws in Korea (Reference No. 95 [2007]).

In November 2006, at the fifty-seventh National Statistics Convention, the Institute received the ŌUCHI Award, which is considered the highest mark of honor in the field of statistics. (The award was established in 1953, in commemoration of the work of ŌUCHI Hyōe, who contributed to the reconstruction of statistics in Japan. Mr. ŌUCHI was also a former president of Hosei university.) In celebration of the reception of the award, a symposium entitled "Cooperation between the Government and Academia in Statistics" was held at the Boissonade Tower (26th floor, room A) on March 17, 2007. At the symposium, the opening address by the chief director of the Institute Prof. MORI Hiromi was followed by keynote talks, "Professor ŌUCHI and Statistics in Japan" by Prof. NAKAMURA Takahide, a professor emeritus of Tokyo University and a former president of the Statistical Council, and "Statistics in Japan from the Perspective of the Theory on Statistical Quality" by Prof. ITŌ Yōichi, who served as the chief director of the Institute for many years. The keynote talks were followed by a panel discussion on "Cooperation between the Government and Academia in Statistics," with Prof. TAKEUCHI Kei (professor emeritus, Tokyo University; former president of the Statistical Council), Prof. MATSUDA Yoshirō (Aomori Public College; former member of the Statistical Council), Prof. KIKUCHI Susumu (Rikkyo University) and others as panelists.

(Revised on April 4, 2008)

2.Education

First, the education of and research work by graduate students of economics at Hosei University are conducted at the Institute, and the outcome of students research is published in the Institute's publications and academic journals. Secondly, concerning undergraduate education, seminars related to statistics utilize the Institute, and the Institute provides a place in which undergraduate students not majoring in statistics can also familiarize themselves with statistics, particularly through courses related to statistics.

3.The Library and The Administrative Structure

First, concerning the library function, the collection of the late Mr. ARITA Seizō was donated to the institute in 2004. The collection includes rare books on German social statistics from the early twentieth century and books from the Taishō era to the middle of Wold War II in Japan. As a result, the Institute's collection in these areas became markedly strong. The sorting process of these books has been carried out gradually. Secondly, a member of the Institute who also teaches statistics at the university offers a new course titled "Society and Information." This course is closely connected to statistics, and efforts are made to gather books on laws concerning the National Meeting of Statisticains. The Institute has also continued its effort to provide information on its library resources and publications through its website, which is constantly updated.

In addition to the members of the Institute already mentioned earlier, the following personnel have served as staff members and clerical staff of the Institute. Staff members: NAKAMURA Ritsuko (Faculty of Social Policy and Administration; former staff member), KATŌ Ei'ichi (Faculty of Social Policy and Administration; former staff member), SHIMIZU Mikio (Faculty of Social Policy and Administration; former staff member), MATSUI Ryōsuke (Faculty of Social Policy and Administration; former staff member), SAITŌ Yuriko (Faculty of Social Sciences; former staff member), TAKECHI Kazutaka (Faculty of Economics; former staff member), NISHIZAWA Ei'ichiro (Faculty of Economics; former staff member), MATSUZAKI Tadashi (Faculty of Social Policy and Administration; former staff member), YAMADA Kazunari (Faculty of Social Sciences, former staff member), KONDŌ Akio (Faculty of Economics; former staff member), SAKAMOTO Noriaki (Faculty of Economics; current staff member), OZAWA Kazuhiro (Faculty of Economics; current staff member), SUGA Mikio (Faculty of Economics; current staff member), KIKUZAWA Saeko (Faculty of Social Sciences; current staff member), SUZUKI Takeshi (Faculty of Business Administration; current staff member), NAGAYAMA Kei'ichi (Faculty of Social Policy and Administration; current staff member). Clerical staff: TAKAGI Rieko (former staff), INOUE Aya (former staff), ICHIKAWA Megumi (former staff), YANAGI Taeko (current staff), and HORI Akiko (current staff).

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Current Projects and Future Undertakings

Research

The Institute has focused on conducting research on domestic and international government statistical activities and government statistical documents, and the following research topics have been given particular attention.

(1) The Current State and Utilization of Statistical Microdata

Statistical microdata are anonymous individual data sets, for which information that can identify an individual, included in individual data collected during statistical surveys, has been eliminated. The use of statistical microdata is indispensable in statistical analysis, as they enable detailed statistical analysis of interrelationships. On the international level, this type of data is used extensively, leading to the revision of laws concerning statistics and the structuring of relevant systems. As Japan has fallen behind in this area, currently there is a high interest in the examination of relevant government statistical systems and laws, as well as testing of the results of analysis using statistical microdata. For the past ten years, the Institute has conducted projects on this topic, including those under Grants-in-Aid of Scientific Research, and plans to continue its efforts in this area.

(2) Possibilities for Change in Population Censuses and the Modes of Production of Statistics

Statistical surveys have been conducted for over one hundred and fifty years, and there has been a trend in some countries toward production of statistics based on registered information, particularly for population censuses, due to deteriorating statistical environments and for the sake of efficiency. Research on population censuses has received extensive attention in the past ten years, and it is likely that the interest in this area will continue in the future. What is critical is to conduct comparative research on the international level. The Institute has been holding workshops inviting relevant specialists from abroad, and has been publishing relevant documents and articles on this subject.

(3) Introduction and Development of the Theories of "Statistical Quality"

Since the 1990s, there have been active debates on the quality of statistics produced and published by countries as well as regional and global organizations, at a level far beyond the conventional debates on "error = sampling error and non-sampling error." These debates are carried out not only in regard to the accuracy of statistical data, but also call for evaluating statistical data, the methods and standards for producing those data, as well as the statistical systems and policies of countries producing statistical data, in terms of relevance (whether the data meet the needs of the users), timeliness, accessibility on the side of the users, and other multidimensional standards. It is also argued that the results of such evaluations should be made public, and such information is beginning to be publicized. These debates over quality evaluation are also about quality assurance in the process of statistical production. This trend can be seen as a move toward applying the methods of quality evaluation and maintenance used in private companies and organizations to statistical activities, and is interwoven with contemporary notions of information disclosure and customer-oriented services. Since the mid-1990s, the Institute has paid attention to the theories of statistical quality as theories that contain some elements that can transform conventional statistics and their debates. The Institute will continue to pursue this important topic.

(4) Introduction of International Theories and Movements on Gender Statistics and Their Development in Japan and the ESCAP Region

Since the United Nations World Conference on Women in 1975, the rise of domestic and international movements in pursuit of gender equality has been one of the notable international trends in the late twentieth century. In this environment, statistics have received attention as a measure for understanding the condition of men and women objectively and through comparisons between genders. The statistical debates on this topic have not been about statistics on women, but about statistics concerning both men and women. Moreover, "gender statistics" are not simply about statistics on men and women, but about statistical data and analysis that consider the problematic issues wherever gender gaps and discriminations are evident. (These issues are called "gender issues." Concrete examples of such issues are listed as the "twelve critical areas of concern" in the statement adopted during the World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995.) While debates on gender statistics have been extensive and gender statistics have been widely accepted and utilized by countries and international organizations, there still are problems that require further consideration. The Japan Statistics Research Institute has been introducing and reviewing international trends on gender statistics since active debates on the topic began to emerge. The Institute has also conducted activities that support further expansion and deepening of the perspective of gender statistics in Japan and its local regions, and published on relevant issues. Research on gender statistics is currently ongoing at the Institute, through projects funded by the Institute itself and by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research.

(5) Research on Regional Statistics

The Institute has made efforts in gathering and maintaining regional statistics, and has also conducted research on regional statistics. Nevertheless, as Japan faces a nationwide population decline, the number of prefectures with declining populations will continue to increase in the future. While the countryside faces depopulation, the Tokyo metropolitan area will also confront various problems including population aging in the next ten to twenty years. Changes in rural society will become more critical than ever, requiring measures to revitalize local communities. The Institute will continue to pay attention to this important topic.

(6) Statistical Research on Asia

Asia's influence on twenty-first century world politics and economies as well as on other societies has been on the rise. Developments and reforms concerning statistical issues in leading industrialized nations serve as useful references for Japan. On the other hand, the accumulation of statistical activities and research in Japan can be extended effectively through technical assistance to the less industrialized countries in Asia and the ESCAP region. It is also important to recognize that the conditions of other Asian countries are deeply connected to Japan. International exchange including human interactions concerning statistical information and research has become increasingly important. The Japan Statistics Research Institute has conducted research on statistics in Asia, while interacting with statisticians and statistics researchers in leading industrialized countries in other regions. The Institute has a close relationship with the ESCAP statistics division and relevant organizations in China, and plans to continue its research on statistics in Asia and the ESCAP region.

(7) Other Research Topics

The topics that the Institute has examined in the past ten years and considers to be the issues that require further research have been described above. New projects, related to these topics and in other areas, will be pursued in the future. Among the issues for future projects, research on statistical and informational education and its practical application is likely to become an important topic, as the ways in which university education is carried out have received attention in recent years as a social problem.

Strengthening the User-Oriented Services

(1) Strengthening the Library Function

With its library, the Institute offers a useful place for students and residents in nearby communities to use statistical resources. The Institute plans to make its facilities more convenient for users, through measures such as enriching the content of its website and expanding its computer resources.

(2) Strengthening the Library Resources

The Institute's collection of literature on statistics has been enriched further by the donation of the collection of the late Mr. ARITA Seizō. The Institute is currently sorting these newly obtained materials.

(3) Enriching the Website

[1] The Institute has been publishing many important materials and research outcomes in various forms, including Newsletters, References, and books available for purchase. The information on these publications needs to be made available on the Institute's website so that these materials can be accessed and utilized more easily. The website is also an important resource for providing information concerning the literature held at the Institute and the Institute's library functions. The Institute is currently making an effort in this area.

[2] The Institute plans to post research outcomes on the website not only in Japanese but also in English as a measure for reaching out to the world.

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